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Industrial batteries. Features summary. Chapter 2 - Industrial Battery Types

Industrial batteries. Features summary. Chapter 2 - Industrial Battery Types
25 May 2020

Industrial batteries. Features summary.

 

Chapter 2 - Industrial Battery Types

 

IMPORTANT NOTE:  To download this chapter in pdf, please visit our Frequently Asked Questions section where you can find it.   https://www.norwatt.es/biblioteca.html

 

Note: To read Chapter 1, please visit: https://www.norwatt.es/noticia-industrial-batteries--features-summary---chapter-1---acronyms-es.html

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For the industrial use, the most common battery types available are:

 

2.1    Lead-acid batteries: Can be Floode####sealed:

Lead-acid battery was invented in 1859 by Gaston Plante and was the first rechargeable battery, and it’s the more used worldwide even actually.

Typical uses:

  • In short discharge: start of thermal engines.
  • In charge discharge cycles: motive power.
  • In long discharges: Communication applications.

 Bateria de plomo

PbO2 + 2H2SO4 + 2e- → 2H2O + PbSO4 + SO42-

Pb + SO42- → PbSO4 + 2e-

 

Positive cathode: PbO2

Negative Anode: Pb

Electrolyte: Diluted H2SO4

 

Lead-acid batteries are composed of a Lead-dioxide cathode, a sponge metallic Lead anode and a Sulphuric acid solution electrolyte.

Main advantages:

  • Low-cost
  • Simple manufacture
  • Low cost per watt-hour
  • High specific power, capable of high discharge currents
  • Good performance at low and high temperatures
  • Most mature technology
  • High recovery value.

Main disadvantages:

  • Weight (with some exceptions were the weight can be useful)
  • Sudden blackout possibility
  • Low energy density per unit mass
  • Slow charging: Fully saturated charge takes 14–16 hours
  • Need for storage in charged condition to prevent sulphating.
  • Watering requirement for flooded type
  • Environmental impact
  • Lead pollution risks in the industrial chain.
  • Short cycle life

 

Characteristic

Lead- Acid Batteries

Nominal voltage per cell

2V

Specific energy (Wh/kg)

30-40

Energy density (Wh/L)

50-90

Cycle life (to 80% original capacity at 100% DOD)

200-300 (up to 400 at 80% DOD)

Traction special types – 1500 up to 1500 cycles

Calendar life (years)

2 to 8

Ambient temperature during charge (°C)

-40-50 ºC

Ambient temperature during discharge (°C)

40-60 ºC (only some special types)

Self-discharge capacity loss per month

4-8 %

Memory effect

No

Toxic metals

Lead

Battery management system required

No

 

2.2    NiCd batteries: Only flooded

Nickel Cadmium battery was invented in 1899 by Waldemar Jungner.

 

Typical uses:

In short discharge: start of thermal engines

In long discharges: Rectifiers or back up applications: UPS, substations, railway, planes.

 Bateria NiCd

Cd + 2NiOOH + 2 H2O 2Ni(OH)+ Cd(OH)2

Positive cathode: NiOOH

Negative Anode: Cd

Electrolyte: KOH

 

These type of batteries use nickel hydroxide Ni(OH)2 for the cathode, cadmium Cd for the anode and an alkaline potassium hydroxide for the electrolyte.

Main advantages:

  • Economically priced per cycle
  • Long life
  • High resistance to abuse
  • Long shelf life; can be stored in a discharged state, needing priming before use
  • Wide range of operation temperature
  • Good low-temperature performance
  • Availability in a wide range of sizes and performance options
  • Reliable chemistry

 

Main disadvantages:

  • Low in energy density per unit mass
  • Cadmium is a toxic metal; cannot be disposed of in landfills
  • High self-discharge; needs recharging after storage
  • Low cell voltage of 1.20 V
  • Memory effect
  • Environmentally unfriendly

 

Characteristic

NiCd Batteries

Nominal voltage per cell

1,2 Vdc

Specific energy (Wh/kg)

35-80

Energy density (Wh/L)

100-150

Cycle life (to 80% original capacity at 100% DOD)

300-1000

Calendar life (years)

15 -20

Ambient temperature during charge (°C)

0-40 ºC

Ambient temperature during discharge (°C)

-20-70 ºC

Self-discharge capacity loss per month

15-20%

Memory effect

Yes

Toxic metals

Cadmiun

Battery management system required

No

 

2.3    Nickel–Metal Hydride (Ni–MH) Battery

 

Development was sponsored by Mercedes and Volkswagen for use in EV.

The Ni–MH Battery for EV, HEV or satellite applications (initially).

 Baterias NiMh

NiOOH + MH Ni(OH)2 + M

 

Positive cathode: Ni(OH)2 

Negative Anode: MH

Electrolyte: KOH

 

These cells use nickel hydroxide Ni(OH)2 for the cathode. Hydrogen is used as the active element in a hydrogen-absorbing anode.

Main advantages:

  • Good energy density.
  • Simplified incorporation into products currently using nickel–cadmium batteries because of the many design similarities between both.
  • Greater service advantage over other primary battery
  • Greater service advantage at extreme low-temperature operation (–20°C)

Main disadvantages:

  • Limited service life
  • Limited discharge current: repeated discharge with high load currents reduces the battery’s cycle life.
  • Need for a more complex charge algorithm
  • Generates more heat Than NiCd during charge
  • High self-discharge

 

Please, continue reading this article here:

https://www.norwatt.es/archivos/filemanager/2020/06/15_loywrbs11f_Chapter_2_para_FAQ.pdf

 

LinkedIn:

Rodrigo Suárez - CEO: https://es.linkedin.com/in/rodrigo-suarez-cueto-05ab9357

NORWATT SL:https://cl.linkedin.com/company/norwatt-sl

Rodrigo Suárez Cueto

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